An innovator in contemporary thought on economic and political development looks here at decline rather than growth hirschman makes a basic distinction between alternative ways of reacting to deterioration in business firms and in general to dissatisfaction with organizations. As exit often undercuts voice while being unable to counteract decline loyalty is seen in the function of retarding exit and of permitting voice to play its proper role the interplay of the three concepts turns out to illuminate a wide range of economic social and political phenomena. Exit voice and loyalty responses to decline in firms organizations and states by hirschman new edition 1990 taschenbuch. Exit voice and loyalty 1970 is a treatise written by albert o hirschman 1915 2012 the work hinges on a conceptual ultimatum that confronts consumers in the face of deteriorating quality of goods either exit or voice . Exit voice and loyalty responses to decline in firms organizations and states albert o hirschman harvard university press 1970 business economics 162 pages
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